Author: INVOmain

Left-wing terrorist groups

This group seeks to replace the entire political, social, and economic system of a state by introducing a communist or socialist structure and a classless society30. In 2016, left wing extremists groups remained a threat to the European member states. These groups choose to reside in certain areas in EU; they have established specific community centers where they can attack individuals. Left-wing terrorist groups can be found in Italy, Greece and Spain. Italy: In 2016, there were a total of 16 attacks carried out by left wing terrorist groups. The majority of the attacks were carried out using unsophisticated incendiary/explosive devices (IID/IEDs). Eight people in the region were arrested as suspects. Greece: Left-wing groups in this area have retained their operational capabilities as well as their access to weapons. In 2016, they carried out six attacks involving the use of IEDs, firearms and grenades. Spain: Left-wing terrorist activities in this area remain low level. In 2016, fivc attacks occurred but they did not involve any sophisticated IEDs or firearms. The number of arrests continues to increase in this area, which explains why these groups have minimal...

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Right-Wing Terrorist Groups

Right-wing terrorist groups: These groups seek to replace the entire political, social, and economic system but on the basis of an extremist right wing model. The core idea of this group is supremacy, in which one group, race, and religion is superior to all other people26. Right wing groups have also taken on a xenophobic and islamophobia position to spread fear and concern in Europe. The rise of right-wing extremist groups is poorly researched in comparison to ethno-nationalist and separatist groups. Where there are about 2,110 cases of ethno-nationalist and separatist groups, there are about 4 or 5 reports on the attacks of right-wing extremists27. There are several contributing factors that explain the decline of attacks by this group. In Ravndal’s research in 2016, he identifies seven types of right-wing terrorists. 1. Organized groups: known entities with five or more members whose association primarily relies on a strong commitment to right-wing politics 2. Affiliated members: organized groups acting on their own 3. Autonomous cells: clandestine entity of two to four members whose association primarily relies on a strong commitment to right-wing politics 4. Gangs: informal constellations of three or more acquaintances with a general right-wing commitment, but whose loose association primarily relies on social bonds, e.g. skinhead gangs and racist youth gangs. 5. Unorganized: two or more perpetrators with no known association to any specific right-wing group, cell, or...

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Ethno-nationalist & Separatist Groups

Ethno-nationalist and separatist groups are motivated by nationalism, ethnicity and religion. There are four different types of ethno-nationalist and separatist groups that pose a threat to Europe’s political system. 1. Dissident Republican groups: Dissident republican groups pose an immediate threat to Europe’s political system. There are three main groups in Northern Ireland: the Continuity IRA (CIRA), the new IRA and Óglaigh na hÉireann (ONH). These groups have the capacity to cause immense destruction, with weapons like under-vehicle IEDs and explosives. In 2016 alone, there were at least 76 attempted attacks, four of which were successful. In May of 2016, the United Kingdom government upgraded the threat from this group from moderate to substantial. The threat of this group remains high and will affect Europe regardless if some groups lose power. 2. PKK (Kongra Gel)/KCK: This ethno nationalist group targets Turkish institutions. France reported that there were five IED attacks against Turkish institutions in 2016. Germany also reported that there were significant amount of demonstrations for and against the PKK. In this region, the PKK also damaged Turkish institutions. Areas like Italy, Switzerland, and Romania have also described the growing influence of this party. 3. Euskadi ta askatasuna (ETA): Even after the ceasefire on October 11, 2011, this group still has influence over northern Spain and southwestern France. In 2016, five separatist terrorist actions were reported, and this group happened...

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Europe’s Wahhabist Extremists

Wahhabist Extremists Wahhabist extremists have a particular set of beliefs that make them distinct from other terrorist groups in Europe. In Europe, Wahhabists have committed mass casualty attacks with the help of foreign fighters in Syria. Between 2011 and 2016 over 5,000 European Muslims went to fight in Syria; about five times more than the number that went to anywhere else to join a terrorist group. In 2016, 135 people were killed in ISIS attacks in the EU. In total 13 terrorist attacks were reported: France 5, Belgium 4 and Germany 4. Out of these 13 attacks, 10 were completed. Close to 720 individuals were arrested as suspects with ties to ISIS or similar groups21. Attacks by 20 European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (2017) 21 European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (2017) These groups are against the West, and will continue to pose a threat to the stability of the region. The attacks in Brussels, Nice and Berlin in particular, with explosives (Brussels) and vehicles (Nice and Berlin) were used to randomly kill and wound as many people as possible. This again demonstrates the harm that Wahhabists are able and willing to inflict upon EU...

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GERMANY

Populist parties in Germany have not had much success in winning seats. The National Democratic party of Germany is the oldest right wing populist party, and is mostly known for its Neo-Nazi political views. The party has never managed to get enough votes; thus, it has had very minimal political influence. Following very important political events in 2013, National emocratic Party of Germany was replaced by the Alternative for Deutschland (AfD) –in opposition to German Chancellor Angela Merkel’s open door policy to refugees. Many parties Joined the movement, including the (neo)-liberal Free Democratic party and the Christian Democratic Party (CDU). The diagram above shows the change from National Democratic party of Germany to AfD, and how much more support AfD received. In 2014, many demonstrations were held against Germany’s immigration policy. This was mostly caused by the Pegida movement, which led to Changes in the party’s leadership. The political movement claims to be anti-Islamist and aims to stop Islamic extremism. Following 2015, the AfD party under the influence of Bernd Lucke, developed the same messages as members of Pegida. The party adopted much of Pegida language of anti-establishment, anti-Islam, anti-media, and anti-immigration. Separate from the influence of Pegida, the party also rejects further integration with the EU14. The progress of AfD remains relatively stagnant– as the party is losing its support base. However, many Germans fear that supporters of...

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