This group seeks to replace the entire political, social, and economic system of a state by introducing a communist or socialist structure and a classless society30.
In 2016, left wing extremists groups remained a threat to the European member states. These groups choose to reside in certain areas in EU; they have established specific community centers where they can attack individuals. Left-wing terrorist groups can be found in Italy, Greece and Spain.
Italy: In 2016, there were a total of 16 attacks carried out by left wing terrorist groups. The majority of the attacks were carried out using unsophisticated incendiary/explosive devices (IID/IEDs). Eight people in the region were arrested as suspects.
Greece: Left-wing groups in this area have retained their operational capabilities as well as their access to weapons. In 2016, they carried out six attacks involving the use of IEDs, firearms and grenades.

Spain: Left-wing terrorist activities in this area remain low level. In 2016, fivc attacks occurred but they did not involve any sophisticated IEDs or firearms. The number of arrests continues to increase in this area, which explains why these groups have minimal impact.